February 19, 2020
JSON Web Token Best Current Practices is now RFC 8725 and BCP 225

OAuth logoThe JSON Web Token Best Current Practices specification is now RFC 8725 and BCP 225. The abstract of the specification is:

The abstract of the specification is:

JSON Web Tokens, also known as JWTs, are URL-safe JSON-based security tokens that contain a set of claims that can be signed and/or encrypted. JWTs are being widely used and deployed as a simple security token format in numerous protocols and applications, both in the area of digital identity and in other application areas. This Best Current Practices document updates RFC 7519 to provide actionable guidance leading to secure implementation and deployment of JWTs.

The JSON Web Token (JWT) specification [RFC 7519] was approved in May 2015, almost five years ago, and has been in production use since at least 2013. This Best Current Practices specification contains a compendium of lessons learned from real JWT deployments and implementations over that period. It describes pitfalls and how to avoid them as well as new recommended practices that enable proactively avoiding problems that could otherwise arise. Importantly, the BCP introduces no breaking changes to the JWT specification and does not require changes to existing deployments.

The BCP came about as JWTs were starting to be used in new families of protocols and applications, both in the IETF and by others. For instance, JWTs are being used by the IETF STIR working group to enable verification of the calling party’s authorization to use a particular telephone number for an incoming call, providing verified Caller ID to help combat fraudulent and unwanted telephone calls. The advice in the BCP can be used by new JWT profiles and applications to take advantage of what’s been learned since we created the JSON Web Token (JWT) specification over a half decade ago.

February 18, 2020
OpenID Connect Federation Keynote at January 2020 OpenID Japan Summit

OpenID logoI gave this keynote presentation at the January 2020 OpenID Japan Summit: Enabling Large-Scale Multi-Party Federations with OpenID Connect. View it in PowerPoint or PDF.

Thanks to Roland Hedberg for collaborating on the presentation with me and for being primary author of the OpenID Connect Federation specification.

And as a preview of coming attractions, I’ll also be presenting on OpenID Connect Federation at Identiverse in June 2020.

February 12, 2020
JWTs helping combat fraudulent and unwanted telephone calls

IETF logoI wanted to bring two excellent articles by the IETF on work by the STIR working group to combat fraudulent and unwanted telephone calls to your attention:

Abstract: Providers of voice over IP in the United States will be required to implement the IETF’s Secure Telephony Identity Revisited (STIR) protocol as a result of recently enacted legislation to address some of the root causes of illegal robocalling on the telephone network.

Abstract: Recently, the output of the IETF Secure Telephony Identity Revisited (STIR) working group has received considerable attention from service providers, regulators, and the press because it addresses some of the root causes of the illegal robocalling which has crippled the telephone network.

I love this work for two reasons. First, like the rest of you, I receive a huge volume of unwanted and often fraudulent phone calls. I love that engineers and regulators are partnering to take concrete steps to reduce the volume of these illegal and annoying calls.

Second, I love it that the STIR protocols are using JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) under the covers as the format to represent verifiable statements about legitimate uses of telephone numbers, enabling verifiable Caller ID. It’s often said that one sign of a standard having succeeded is that it’s used for things that the inventors never imagined. This is certainly such a case! I’m proud that the JSON Web Token, which we originally designed with digital identity use cases in mind, is now being used in a completely different context to solve a real problem experienced by people every day.

February 7, 2020
Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications addressing Area Director reviews

IETF logoThe two Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications have been updated to address the Area Director review comments by Benjamin Kaduk. The changes to address Ben’s comments were made in the previous versions (-08 for Push and -07 for Pull.) The latest versions addressed editorial nits.

Thanks to Ben for his thorough reviews! And thanks to Annabelle Backman for reviewing the changes.

The specifications are available at:

HTML-formatted versions are also available at:

January 27, 2020
COSE and JOSE Registrations for WebAuthn Algorithms spec adding explanatory comments on design decisions

IETF logoThe “COSE and JOSE Registrations for WebAuthn Algorithms” specification has been updated to add explanatory comments on design decisions made that were discussed on the mailing list that Jim Schaad requested be added to the draft.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

January 15, 2020
OAuth 2.0 Token Exchange is now RFC 8693

OAuth logoThe OAuth 2.0 Token Exchange specification is now RFC 8693. The abstract of the specification is:

This specification defines a protocol for an HTTP- and JSON-based Security Token Service (STS) by defining how to request and obtain security tokens from OAuth 2.0 authorization servers, including security tokens employing impersonation and delegation.

This specification standardizes an already widely-deployed pattern in production use by Box, Microsoft, RedHat, Salesforce, and many others. Thanks to all of you who helped make a standard for this important functionality!

December 28, 2019
OpenID eKYC and Identity Assurance Working Group Formed

OpenID logoI’m pleased to report that the OpenID eKYC and Identity Assurance Working Group is up and running. The new working group is now the home for the OpenID Connect for Identity Assurance specification. This specification defines a representation for verified claims about end-users. This enables real-world use cases such as electronic driver’s licenses and digitally satisfying Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements.

See the post OpenID Connect for Identity Assurance now has a dedicated home for more information about the working group, including the working group call schedule.

November 18, 2019
Poll-Based Security Event Token (SET) Delivery spec addressing WGLC and Shepherd comments

IETF logoThe Poll-Based Security Event Token (SET) Delivery specification has been updated to address Working Group Last Call (WGLC) and Document Shepherd comments received. Thanks to Annabelle Backman for the useful WGLC comments and to Yaron Sheffer for the useful Shepherd comments. This update is intended to enable our area director Benjamin Kaduk to review both the Push and Poll delivery method specifications at the same time.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

November 6, 2019
Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) sent to the RFC Editor

OAuth logoI’m pleased to report that the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification is now technically stable and will shortly be an RFC – an Internet standard. Specifically, it has now progressed to the RFC Editor queue, meaning that the only remaining step before finalization is editorial due diligence. Thus, implementations can now utilize the draft specification with confidence that that breaking changes will not occur as it is finalized.

The abstract of the specification is:

This specification describes how to declare in a CBOR Web Token (CWT) (which is defined by RFC 8392) that the presenter of the CWT possesses a particular proof-of-possession key. Being able to prove possession of a key is also sometimes described as being the holder-of-key. This specification provides equivalent functionality to “Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)” (RFC 7800) but using Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) and CWTs rather than JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and JSON Web Tokens (JWTs).

Thanks to the ACE working group for completing this important specification.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

October 24, 2019
COSE and JOSE Registrations for WebAuthn Algorithms spec addressing WGLC comments

IETF logoThe “COSE and JOSE Registrations for WebAuthn Algorithms” specification has been updated to address working group last call (WGLC) feedback received. Thanks to J.C. Jones, Kevin Jacobs, Jim Schaad, Neil Madden, and Benjamin Kaduk for their useful reviews.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

October 22, 2019
JSON Web Token Best Current Practices sent to the RFC Editor

OAuth logoI’m pleased to report that the JSON Web Token (JWT) Best Current Practices (BCP) specification is now technically stable and will shortly be an RFC – an Internet standard. Specifically, it has now progressed to the RFC Editor queue, meaning that the only remaining step before finalization is editorial due diligence. Thus, implementations can now utilize the draft specification with confidence that that breaking changes will not occur as it is finalized.

The abstract of the specification is:

JSON Web Tokens, also known as JWTs, are URL-safe JSON-based security tokens that contain a set of claims that can be signed and/or encrypted. JWTs are being widely used and deployed as a simple security token format in numerous protocols and applications, both in the area of digital identity, and in other application areas. The goal of this Best Current Practices document is to provide actionable guidance leading to secure implementation and deployment of JWTs.

Thanks to the OAuth working group for completing this important specification.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

October 21, 2019
OpenID Connect Federation draft 09 ready for your review

OpenID logoDraft 09 of the OpenID Connect Federation specification has been published at https://openid.net/specs/openid-connect-federation-1_0-09.html. This version of the specification benefitted from in-person review by experts at IIW. Major changes were:

  • Separated entity configuration discovery from operations provided by the federation API.
  • Defined new authentication error codes.

The authors believe that this version should become the second Implementer’s Draft, in preparation for interop testing in the coming year. Please review!

October 21, 2019
Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) spec addressing Gen-ART and SecDir reviews

IETF logoA new version of the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification has been published addressing the Gen-ART and SecDir review comments. Thanks to Christer Holmberg and Yoav Nir, respectively, for these useful reviews.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

October 10, 2019
Using OpenID Connect Self-Issued to Achieve DID Auth

OpenID logoMy co-authors and I recently competed the paper Using OpenID Connect Self-Issued to Achieve DID Auth, which was created as a result of discussions at the eighth Rebooting the Web of Trust workshop. The paper’s abstract is:

Proving control of a DID requires proving ownership of a private key corresponding to a public key for the DID. Of course, this could be done with a new DID-specific protocol. However, standard protocols for proving ownership of a public/private key pair already exist.

This paper describes how to reuse the Self-Issued OpenID Connect (SIOP) specification and related protocol messages to prove control of a DID. It describes both why and how to do this. Related topics, such as release of claims, are also touched upon.

Several people came to the workshop wanting to explore how to use the OpenID Connect Self-Issued OpenID Provider functionality to prove control of a Decentralized Identifier (DID), including myself. The paper describes the approach being taken by a number of groups using DIDs, including Microsoft. The paper’s publication is timely, as the W3C DID Working Group has just formed to create a DID standard. Microsoft is an active member of the working group.

Special thanks to Dmitri Zagidulin for getting the paper over the finish line!

October 1, 2019
Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) spec addressing remaining Area Director comments

IETF logoA new version of the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification has been published to address the remaining Area Director review comments by Benjamin Kaduk. Thanks to Ludwig Seitz for doing the bulk of the editing for this version.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

October 1, 2019
OpenID Presentations at September 2019 OpenID Workshop and IIW

OpenID logoI gave the following presentations at the Monday, September 30, 2019 OpenID Workshop at Verizon Media:

I also gave the following invited “101” session presentation at the Internet Identity Workshop (IIW) on Tuesday, October 1, 2019:

September 19, 2019
Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) spec addressing Area Director review comments

IETF logoThe Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) specification has been updated to address the Area Director review comments by Benjamin Kaduk. Thanks to Ludwig Seitz and Hannes Tschofenig for their work on resolving the issues raised.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

August 16, 2019
OAuth Device Flow is now RFC 8628

OAuth logoThe OAuth Device Flow specification (recently renamed to be the OAuth 2.0 Device Authorization Grant specification) is now RFC 8628. The abstract describes the specification as:

The OAuth 2.0 device authorization grant is designed for Internet-connected devices that either lack a browser to perform a user-agent-based authorization or are input constrained to the extent that requiring the user to input text in order to authenticate during the authorization flow is impractical. It enables OAuth clients on such devices (like smart TVs, media consoles, digital picture frames, and printers) to obtain user authorization to access protected resources by using a user agent on a separate device.

This specification standardizes an already widely-deployed pattern in production use by Facebook, ForgeRock, Google, Microsoft, Salesforce, and many others. Thanks to all of you who helped make this existing practice an actual standard!

July 24, 2019
OAuth 2.0 Token Exchange specification sent to the RFC Editor

OAuth logoI’m very pleased to report that the OAuth 2.0 Token Exchange specification is now technically stable and will shortly be an RFC – an Internet standard. Specifically, it has now progressed to the RFC Editor queue, meaning that the only remaining step before finalization is editorial due diligence. Thus, implementations can now utilize the draft specification with confidence that that breaking changes will not occur as it is finalized.

The abstract of the specification is:

This specification defines a protocol for an HTTP- and JSON-based Security Token Service (STS) by defining how to request and obtain security tokens from OAuth 2.0 authorization servers, including security tokens employing impersonation and delegation.

Thanks to the OAuth working group for completing this important specification. And thanks to Brian Campbell for taking point in making the recent updates to get us here.

The specification is available at:

An HTML-formatted version is also available at:

July 8, 2019
Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications updated in preparation for IETF 105

IETF logoThe two Security Event Token (SET) delivery specifications have been updated to address working group feedback received, in preparation for discussions at IETF 105 in Montreal. Only minor terminological updates were made to the Push Delivery spec following the working group last call (WGLC) changes in the previous recent revisions. Thanks to Annabelle Backman for the edits to the Push Delivery spec.

The changes to the Poll Delivery spec further aligned it with the Push spec, referencing shared functionality, rather than duplicating it. I believe that the Poll spec is now ready for working group last call.

The specifications are available at:

HTML-formatted versions are also available at:

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